Cleft lip and palate surgery is a treatment to eliminate one of the congenital defects that usually occur in the fetus during pregnancy.
It is one of the most common congenital anomalies in the world and affects approximately one in every 700 babies born in the world. Cleft lip and palate occurs in the sixth and last week of the first trimester. Pregnancy, in which the lips and palate are fully formed, respectively, was not due to the lack of sufficient and suitable tissue to create the lips and palate. Namind) and cleft palate (cleft palate in the roof of the mouth) occurs.
Timely treatment of this disease, which is usually done more easily in childhood by orthodontic and cleft lip and palate surgery methods, can play an effective role in a person’s mood and self-confidence in adulthood, in addition to physical beauty.
How many types of cleft lip and palate are there?
In general, cleft lip and palate occurs in the following three ways:
- Only the lips become cleft.
- Only the palate becomes cleft.
- Both lips and palate become cleft.
Cleft lip and palate may occur very slightly, about the size of an upper lip, or it may extend deep from the lip to the nostril and extend toward the hard palate or even the soft palate.
Cleft lip and palate can also occur unilaterally or bilaterally. The best time to treat it and cleft lip and palate surgery is when the baby is three to six months old. Visit reputable medical centers such as Tehran Surgery Center.
Causes of cleft lip and palate disorder in children
Research has shown that the reasons for this abnormal space in the upper lip, alveoli or palate can be:
Research has shown that the hereditary factor in 33 to 36% of cases has a direct relationship with cleft lip and palate in individuals, so that if the first child has this congenital defect, the next child is more likely to develop cleft lip and palate. It increases to 5%, while if one parent has the condition, the child is 15% more likely to get it.
- Environmental factors
Among the environmental factors influencing cleft lip and palate can be mentioned the following:
- Congenital diseases such as infectious diseases, diabetes, hypothyroidism
- Taking various medications during pregnancy such as corticosteroids, anticonvulsants and epilepsy
- The use of various sedatives during pregnancy leads to a 10% increase in the incidence of this complication.
Deficiency of vitamins such as riboflavin, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin A during pregnancy
Note that high intake of vitamin A can sometimes lead to an increase in cleft lip and palate, while regular consumption of folic acid in the first four months of pregnancy can play an effective protective role against cleft palate.
Hypoxia is another cause of cleft palate, which is one of the most effective causes of hypoxia in children.
- Psychological and emotional factors
Excessive tension, anxiety and stress are also among the causes of cleft lip and palate.
What are the problems and complications of cleft lip and palate?
Among the problems of this cleft for children that are fixed after cleft lip and palate surgery are the following:
• Nutrition problems
Cleft lip and palate do not cause any problems in feeding the baby, but cleft palate prevents the baby from feeding properly and sucking milk because the sucking operation requires a vacuum in the mouth and the cleft palate in the mouth prevents the vacuum from forming. The milk may jump into the baby’s throat or come out of the nose. To solve this problem, they usually use an orthonasis device after consulting an orthodontist, in such a way that the device clings to the roof of the baby’s mouth while breastfeeding, causing it to become blocked. Gap and Tess
Hill is sucked by the baby and prevents milk from being transferred to the baby’s nose.
The point to note is that it is not possible to use normal pacifiers for these babies due to their inability to suck, and to feed them, you should use pacifiers and other special devices such as pressure goggles rather than milk. It enters the baby’s mouth more easily.
• Speech problems
Some children with cleft lip and palate develop speech problems in which they begin to speak later than normal children, or their speech is so-called nasal, which occurs after cleft lip and palate surgery. And referring to speech therapy, this problem will be completely solved.
• Hearing problems
Note that in these children, due to the disruption of the eustachian tube, there is a possibility of increased fluid accumulation in the middle ear and as a result, the risk of ear infection increases, which over time leads to hearing loss and even complete deafness. It is best for the child to be examined by an ear, nose and throat specialist at the age of 3 to 6 months.
• Dental and jaw problems
Because of the cleft palate, tooth buds may not be present at all in the cleft palate or may be small, the number of teeth and their order may be affected, and the teeth may be affected. Grow together.
Another problem that this misalignment of the teeth and their growth in the wrong path as well as performing various surgeries for these people is the reduction of maxillary growth that to solve this problem, the child should be under the supervision of an orthodontist to Using orthodontic fixed and movable orthodontic appliances, the orthodontist should align the teeth, pull the maxilla forward, and fill in the gaps with an implant.
• Psychological problems
These children are usually due to abnormal appearance and have speech problems and…. Their self-confidence decreases and they suffer from a lot of psychological problems, which in most cases are caused by excessive compassion of the parents and keeping the child away from society, so it is recommended that parents be normal with their child and like others. Children collide .
How is cleft lip and palate treated?
Cleft lip and palate treatment can normalize the face and speech of people with an optimal therapeutic management and with excellent results. Help the baby prepare for the suction operation. In the next step, you should see the best maxillofacial surgeon to close the cleft and cleft lip and palate surgery, which is usually the best time to treat cleft lip at 3 months of age and the best time for surgery. Com is intended before the age of one.
For complete treatment in the next stages, orthodontists should be consulted by fixed and mobile orthodontic treatments to improve the position of the teeth and also to create a suitable ground for maxillary growth, which is usually from the age of 5 or 6. Age lasts until the age of 12.
Note that if the patient cooperates properly and visits in time, the maxilla can be pulled forward by orthodontic appliances without the need for cleft lip and palate surgery